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USCG Requirements and Responsibilities of Facility Security Officer

Posted on Mon, Sep 17, 2012

This summer, 22 nations, more than 40 ships and submarines, over 200 aircraft and 25,000 personnel participated in the Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) exercise in and around the Hawaiian Islands. The biennial exercise is designed to establish and sustain cooperative relationships to ensure the safety of sea-lanes and security on the world's oceans. This exercise emphasizes the importance of the US Coast Guard’s Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (MTSA) for U.S based marine-transportation related facilities by prioritizing safety and security.

The MTSA requires marine-transportation related facility owners to be responsible for facility security. The Act requires vulnerability assessments and security plan approvals.  The marine transportation security aspects regulated by the USCG covers the entire facility, not just the transfer or “dock” area.

However, not all port located facilities are affected by the MTSA regulations. The MTSA requires that those facilities deemed “high risk” for transportation related security incidents must comply with regulations in order to continue operations. “High risk” facilities that mandate compliance with MTSA requirements are those that perform the following:

  • Handle explosives, liquefied natural or hazardous gas, or other Certain Dangerous Cargoes (CDC)
  • Transfer oil or hazardous materials
  • Handle vessels covered by Chapter XI of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
  • Handle passenger vessels certified to carry more than 150 passengers (if vessels actually embark or disembark passengers there)
  • Handle cargo vessels greater than 100 gross registered tons
  • Handle barges that carry cargoes regulated by 46 CFR, chapter I, subchapter D or O, or CDCs.

A facility that is deemed high risk must assign a Facility Security Officer (FSO). According to CFR 33 part 105, maritime security for facilities, a single employee may serve as the FSO for more than one facility, as long as the facilities are in the same Captain Of The Port (COTP) zone and are within 50 miles of each other. The FSO may also perform other duties within the company, but they must be able to perform the duties and responsibilities required of the FSO. The FSO must ensure and oversee the following duties:

  • Facility Security Assessment (FSA)
  • Facility Security Plan (FSP) is developed and implemented
  • Annual audit, and if necessary, update the FSA and FSP
  • The FSP is exercised per §105.220
  • Regular security inspections
  • Security awareness and vigilance of the facility personnel
  • Adequate training to personnel performing facility security duties
  • Security incidents are recorded and reported to the owner or operator
  • Documentation of maintenance
  • Preparation and the submission of any reports
  • Any required Declarations of Security with Masters, Vessel Security Officers or their designated representatives
  • The coordination of security services in accordance with the approved FSP
  • Security equipment is properly operated, tested, calibrated, and maintained
  • The recording and reporting of attainment changes in MARSEC Levels to the owner or operator and the cognizant COTP
  • When requested, provide assistance to the Vessel Security Officers in confirming the identity of visitors and service providers seeking to board the vessel through the facility
  • Timely notification to law enforcement personnel and other emergency responders of any transportation security incident
  • The FSP submittal to the cognizant COTP for approval, as well as any plans to change the facility or facility infrastructure prior to amending the FSP
  • Facility personnel are briefed of changes in security conditions
  • Proper implementation of the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) program, if necessary.

For tips and best practices on designing a crisis management program, download Best Practices for Crisis Management.

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Tags: USCG, MTSA, Security plans, Department of Homeland Security, Terrorism Threat Management, Chemical Industry

The National Response Center and FCC Dedicated Phone Lines

Posted on Thu, Aug 09, 2012

The National Response Center (NRC) is the sole federal point of contact for spills of hazardous materials. The NRC, which is staffed on a 24-hour basis, was given the responsibility of receiving incident reports involving hazardous materials regulated under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act for the transportation of hazardous materials (49 CFR 171), for natural gas and other gases transported by pipeline (49 CFR 191), and for liquids transported by pipeline (49 CFR 195). All facilities involved in these activities should include the National Response Center reporting number, (800) 424-8802, in the notification section of an emergency response plan.

However, not all emergencies involve hazardous material or the requirement to contact the National Response Center. Specific emergency and non-emergency notification resources include a series of assigned three digit phone numbers. In May 2012, The U.S. Department of Transportation's Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) issued “One Call” grants in excess of $1 million to support states' 8-1-1 safe digging call centers in an effort to reduce pipeline digging accidents.

“One-third of all serious pipeline accidents are caused by someone digging and hitting a pipeline by mistake. In fact, between 1988 and 2010, excavation damage was responsible for $438,785,552 in property damage.” - PHMSA

The most commonly recognized emergency number is 9-1-1. Since September 11, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has taken important steps to ensure that the emergency 911 services and other critical communications remain operational when disasters strike. Efforts to include wireless communication networks into the emergency call systems have been successful. Three digit phone lines are dedicated to a variety of services. While some of these lines are fee based, others are provided free of charge.  The following describes existing three-digit numbers:

  • 9-1-1: Emergency services- In October 1999, the Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act of 1999 (9-1-1 Act) took effect, encouraging and facilitating the prompt deployment of a free nationwide, seamless communications infrastructure for emergency services. One provision of the 9-1-1 Act directs the FCC to make 9-1-1 the universal emergency number for all telephone service, including wireless services.
  • 8-1-1:  Pipeline safety call center- Calls are routed to local call centers. The operator reports the location of the planned dig, type of work to be performed, and notifies affected local utilities companies. Within a few days, a locator will arrive to mark the approximate location of the underground lines, pipes and cables surrounding the dig site.
  • 7-1-1: Telecommunications Relay Services (TRS)- The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has adopted use of the 711 dialing code for access to TRS. TRS permits persons with a hearing or speech disability to use the telephone system via a text telephone (TTY) or other device to call persons with or without such disabilities.
  •  6-1-1: Service Provider Customer services- The 611 number is not officially assigned by the (FCC) or the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), but both have chosen not to disturb the assignment as it is generally recognized across the North American Numbering Plan Administration (NANPA) for being used to report a problem with telephone service.
  • 5-1-1: Travel Information- In July of 2000, the FCC designated "511" as the single traffic information telephone number to be made available to states and local jurisdictions across the country. The Federal Highway administration website provides additional details regarding the travel information dedicated line.
  • 4-1-1: Local directory assistance and Information- These call typically involves a surcharge.
  • 3-1-1: Non emergency- Calls to 311 are routed either to a separate center and handled by non-public safety personnel, or routed to the same center where 911 and other public safety calls are handled, depending on the circumstances.
  • 2-1-1: State specific resource for basic health and human services - As of October 2011, all 50 states (including 37 states with 90%+ coverage) plus Washington DC and Puerto Rico are included in the 2-1-1 applied regions. As of May 2011, more than 56% of Canadians have access to 2-1-1 services. Visit 2-1-1 Canada from more information.

For an understanding of the necessary elements in creating an effective fire pre plan, download our Fire Pre Planning Guide.

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Tags: Emergency Management, Crisis Management, Event Preparedness, Business Continuity Plan, Disaster Response, National Preparedness, Notification Systems, Chemical Industry

Be WISER! The Free Hazardous Substance Response Information System

Posted on Thu, Jul 26, 2012

The Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER) developed by the National Library of Medicine, is a free government resource that provides information for over 440 hazardous substances, including substance identification descriptions, physical characteristics, health information, and containment and suppression guidance.

WISER is available as a standalone application on Microsoft Windows PCs, Apple's iPhone and iPod touch devices, Google Android devices, BlackBerry devices, Windows Mobile devices, and Palm OS PDAs. With easy accessibility through Internet connectivity, responders can tap into specific hazardous material details and associated response parameters.

After easily downloading the resource, the user can select a profile as a First responder, HAZMAT Specialist, or EMS professional. With WISER, the user is able to:

  • search for known substance
  • seek assistance in identifying unknown substances
  • explore government resources such as Emergency Response guide books, Radiological tools, and standard triage procedures.

While searching for a known substance, users have access to a variety of associated Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) information including, but not limited to:

  • Key characteristics
  • Identification elements
  • treatment overview
  • health effects
  • toxicity summary (if applicable)
  • IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health)
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Hazard Classification

The system breaks down the substance to include a variety of information including, but not limited to:

  • Basic industrial information (shipping and registry number, molecular formula, synonyms, etc)
  • Chemical properties (color, odor, taste, melting point, etc)
  • HAZMAT (chemical reactivity, firefighting procedures, protective distance, cleanup and disposal methods)
  • Medical (treatment overview, NIOSHA recommendations, AEGL, Radiation limits, OSHA standards, etc),
  • Environmental (CERCLA Quantities, Non-human toxicity values, soil adsorption,  etc)

The WISER substance information and identification properties come from the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), developed and maintained by the National Library of Medicine. The database substances were chosen based on First Responder inputs, degree of chemical hazard, and historical frequency of incidents.

For more information about SPCC Plans, download TRP Corp's free SPCC and FRP Inspections guide.


Tags: Fire Department Training, Emergency Management, Incident Management, Training and Exercises, Safety, Chemical Industry

Preparing for Spill Response

Posted on Mon, Jul 09, 2012

The initial stage of spill response planning should include an analysis of appropriate site specific response procedures and potential effects that a spill would have on nearby social, natural, and economic resources. Stakeholders and applicable levels of government and industry should be consulted and incorporated in spill response planning. Without the full participation of personnel, responders, contractors, and government entities, a plan may lack validity and credibility.

Personnel safety is the first priority in any spill response plan. Individuals who respond to hazardous material emergencies are required by OSHA to have -Online Training training.  HAZWOPER, short for the OSHA initiated Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard, communicates the required training associated with operations and potential spills or releases. Setting spill response priorities depends on a variety of site-specific details including, but not limited to:

  • location of spill at the facility
  • trajectory modeling
  • first and secondary containment
  • resource mapping of sensitive areas
  • physical limitation of response efforts

The goal of a spill response is to minimize the effects of the hazardous material on personnel, the environment, and property. Every spill response plan should include potential containment strategies.  Site-specific strategies may include one or more of the following:

  • boom deployment
  • diking
  • trenching and/or diversion
  • the use of sorbent material

Specific response actions will vary depending on the situation and company guidelines; however the following spill response actions, at a minimum, should be incorporated in a spill response plan;

1. Activate alarms

2. Call 911

3. Shut down source of spill and isolate product movement operations

4. Close all incoming and outgoing valves

5. Shut down potential ignition sources

6. Notify supervisor and communicate details including;

  • Location of spill
  • Size of spill
  • Product type
  • Present situation
  • Assistance/equipment requirements for response and/or cleanup

7. Limit spill from extending beyond immediate area

8. Isolate area and eliminate traffic in hazardous area

9. Block all potential drainage areas to prevent spilled material from traveling off-site, if safe       to do so.

10. Perform air monitoring to ensure safety

11. Initiate spill tracking and mitigate as necessary

12. Remove product from containment

13. If necessary, call an approved waste removal company

14. Complete follow-up and documentation

For a free guide that details the world of HAZWOPER training, download A Guide to HAZWOPER Training.

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Tags: Pipeline, Emergency Preparedness, Oil Spill, Training and Exercises, Chemical Industry

EPA asks, "Where Are the SPCC Facilities?"

Posted on Mon, Jul 02, 2012

In 1973, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule to establish procedures, methods, and equipment requirements to prevent oil discharges from non­ transportation-related facilities. Maintaining SPCC compliance requires preparing plans that outline spill prevention procedures, equipment to prevent spills from occurring, and countermeasures to address the effects of  oil spills.

Despite the regulation, according to a February 2012  EPA report, approximately 55 percent of 3,700 facilities inspected from 2007-2012 were not in compliance with the SPCC guidelines. The EPA estimates that approximately 640,000 U.S. facilities are potentially subject to regulations under the SPCC Rule, yet less than 1 percent of the facilities have been inspected. The report highlights the difficulty in SPCC oversight due to lack of facility self identification requirements. Only SPCC facilities that are required to submit Facility Response Plans (FRP) are identified by the EPA.

EPA regions are continually discovering facilities that have been previously unknown as SPCC facilities.  Recently in New Mexico, which is covered by EPA Region 6, 45 previously unknown SPCC-regulated oil and gas production facilities were identified while conducting inspections at other known facilities.

EPA regions have attempted to increase their knowledge of SPCC facilities by using state aboveground storage tank databases, industry databases such as Dun and Bradstreet, and other federal databases. However, the databases are separate and incompatible with EPA’s databases.

Compiling a list of facilities that come under the SPCC Rule is complicated because limited or incomplete facility data lead to difficulties in determining the facility’s proximity to U.S. navigable waters, the type and capacity of product stored, and facility type (i.e., production or storage).”

While limited resources and staffing strain the EPA’s efforts to identify and inspect every SPCC relevant facility, responsible owners and operators need to be proactive in developing and sustaining accurate plans. Companies must have an SPCC Plan for each facility that has at least one 1,320-gallon aboveground storage tank and/or underground storage of at least 42,000 gallons, and be in such a location that a spill could reasonably be expected to discharge oil into navigable waters. These plans must be certified by a professional engineer . These rules apply regardless of whether the applicable tanks are full or nearly empty.

For more information about SPCC Plans, download TRP Corp's free SPCC and FRP Inspections guide.


Tags: SPCC, EPA, Oil Spill, Regulatory Compliance, Chemical Industry

Material Safety Data Requirements for Emergency Planning

Posted on Thu, Feb 02, 2012

Accurate Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) need to be available to employees and  potential  responders. There is the potential that the MSDSs will not be useful to local response groups unless they are familiar with the presented information.  Understanding this information will assist responders in assessing hazards assessment for pre-emergency planning or actual response to an emergency.

According to Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

  • The Chemical Sampling Information (CSI) file contains listings for approximately 1500 substances
  • The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Substances Inventory lists information on more than 62,000 chemicals or chemical substances
  • Some chemical libraries maintain files of material safety data sheets (MSDS) for more than 100,000 substances.

The number of chemicals is growing on a daily basis. The Chemical Abstract Service (CAS), a division of the American Chemical Society has registered more than 62 million substances. According CAS’s website, “The CAS registry is a collection of disclosed unique organic and inorganic substances, such as alloys, coordination compounds, minerals, mixtures, polymers, and salts, and more than 62 million sequences.”

The Beginning the Hazard Analysis Process, which was originally published as part of the Hazardous Materials Response Handbook (third edition) states, “a first responder might
reasonably be expected to encounter any of 1.5 million of these chemicals in an emergency, with 33,000 to 63,000 of them considered hazardous. To complicate matters, these hazardous chemicals are known by 183,000 different names. Fortunately, not all of these chemicals are equally common.”

OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) specifies required information that must be included on MSDSs. The standard states that “chemical manufacturers and importers shall obtain or develop a material safety data sheet for each hazardous chemical they produce or import. Employers shall have a material safety data sheet in the workplace for each hazardous chemical which they use.”

OSHA requires that each MSDS must contain the following sections, written in English:

  1. Manufacturer's Name and Contact Information, including emergency numbers and addresses.
  2. Hazardous Ingredients/Identity Information, including chemical name, formula, common name, chemical family and associated synonyms. 
  3. Physical/Chemical Characteristics, including detailed chemical properties
  4. Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
  5. Reactivity Data
  6. Health Hazard Data
  7. Precautions for Safe Handling and Use,  including spill and leak procedures
  8. Control Measures, includng special protection information and  precautions

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved an alternative format and published a standard Z400.1-1993, "American National Standard for Hazardous Industrial Chemicals-Material Safety Data Sheets-Preparation."

The following are standards set forth by ANSI. However, OSHA requirements must be included in the MSDS in order to meet compliance requirements.

Section 1. Chemical Product & Company Information
Section. 2. Composition/Information on Ingredients
Section. 3. Hazards Identification
Section. 4. First Aid Measures
Section. 5. Fire Fighting Measures
Section. 6. Accidental Release Measures
Section. 7. Handling and Storage
Section. 8. Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
Section. 9. Physical and Chemical Properties
Section. 10. Stability and Reactivity
Section. 11. Toxicological Information
Section. 12. Ecological Information
Section. 13. Disposal Considerations
Section. 14. Transport Information
Section. 15. Regulatory Information
Section. 16. Other Information

For an understanding of the necessary elements in creating an effective fire pre plan, download our Fire Pre Planning Guide.

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Tags: Radiation, OSHA HAZWOPER, OSHA, Emergency Preparedness, Emergency Management Program, Terrorism Threat Management, HAZWOPER, Chemical Industry

Benefits of C-TPAT - Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism

Posted on Thu, Sep 22, 2011

The Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) is a voluntary supply chain security program, led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). Its goal is to improve the security of private companies' supply chains with respect to terrorism.

The C-TPAT program recognizes that CBP can provide the highest level of cargo security only through close cooperation with the owners of the international supply chain such as importers, carriers, consolidators, licensed customs brokers, and manufacturers. CBP asks businesses to ensure the integrity of their security practices, and communicate and verify the security guidelines of their business partners within the supply chain. This worldwide supply chain security initiative enables companies to ensure a more secure and expeditious supply chain for their employees, suppliers and customers.

C-TPAT participating importers tend to see a decrease in cargo exams, which in turn, decreases costs. Import shipments, subjected to U.S. Customs examinations, face increased costs in the form of U.S. port examination charges, container stripping charges, cargo transfer and storage charges, and other detention charges. Fewer exams mean fewer costs and an immediate savings on the corporate bottom line.

By joining the C-TPAT program, an importer is also eligible to join the Importers Self Assessment (ISA) program. The ISA program allows an importer to conduct an annual internal self-assessment of their own compliance profile and to determine and address risk areas and corrective action elements within their regulatory compliance profile. Members of the ISA program are removed from the Focused Assessment Audit schedule conducted by the Office of Strategic Trade and Regulatory Audit division of CBP.

The CBP provides an informational guide as a stepping-stone to build an international supply chain security risk assessment. The guide is not "all inclusive" of what should be incorporated, as the security assessment should be based on site risk ratings, supply chains, and company specific business practices.

The 5 Step Risk Assessment Process includes:

1.) Mapping Cargo Flow and Identifying Business Partners (directly or indirectly contracted). Identify ALL parties involved in the following processes:

  • Procurement
  • Production
  • Packing
  • Storage
  • Loading/Unloading
  • Transportation
  • Document Preparation

2. Conducting a Threat Assessment focusing on: Terrorism, Contraband Smuggling, Human Smuggling, Organized Crime, and conditions in a country/region which may foster such threats and rate threat – High, Medium, Low: Identify and rate the risk of threat for the country and region for each international supply chain, using the following (at a minimum):

  • Terrorism (political, bio, agro, cyber)
  • Contraband Smuggling
  • Human Smuggling
  • Organized Crime
  • Conditions fostering above threats

3. Conducting a Vulnerability Assessment in accordance with C-TPAT Minimum Security Criteria and rate vulnerability – High, Medium, Low: For all business partners in the international supply chain (directly contracted or sub-contracted):

  • Identify the process they perform
  • Verify partners meet applicable minimum-security criteria
  • Rate their compliance within each applicable minimum-security criteria category

4. Preparing an Action Plan: Establish a corrective action plan to address gaps or vulnerabilities found in business partner’s security programs.

5. Documenting How Risk Assessments are conducted: A description of the company’s approach, policies, and procedures for conducting an international supply chain security risk assessment.

For tips and best practices on designing a crisis management program, download Best Practices for Crisis Management.

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Tags: Regulatory Compliance, Security plans, Chemical Industry

5 Key Points to Review in Facility Emergency Operations Plans

Posted on Thu, Aug 18, 2011

An emergency operations plan should be reviewed for usefulness, ability to achieve a successful response, and its compliance to applicable regulations. According to FEMA, there are five commonly used criteria to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of emergency operations plans.

  1. Adequacy: Decision makers’ need to apply their experience, judgment, intuition, situational awareness, and discretion to ensure a plan is adequately suited for identified hazards. FEMA defines a plan as adequate if:
         a. The scope and concept of planned operations identify and address critical tasks effectively
         b. The plan can accomplish the assigned mission while complying with guidance
         c. The plan’s assumptions are valid, reasonable, and comply with guidance.
  2. Feasibility: The procedures established should be rigorous enough, yet standardized, to minimize subjectivity and preclude oversights in order to accomplish the assigned mission and critical tasks. This should be accomplished by using available resources within the minimum time frame set forth by the plan. Available resources include internal assets and those available through mutual aid, private contractors, or through existing state, regional, or Federal assistance agreements.
  3. Acceptable: The plan meets the requirements driven by a threat or incident, goals set by decision makers, budgetary restraints, response time limitations, and abides by applicable law(s).
  4. Completeness: The plan includes all applicable and effective emergency procedures with estimated response times, required capabilities, needs of the population, and identified success criteria.
  5. Compliance: The plan should comply with all internal and external guiding doctrine within the boundaries of the presiding law(s). Failure to comply with regulations can result in additional financial burdens resulting from fines, negative public perception, and possibly government-mandated shutdown of operations.

For tips and best practices on designing a crisis management program, download Tips for Effective Exercises.

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Tags: Emergency Preparedness, Regulatory Compliance, Facility Management, Emergency Management Program, Chemical Industry

Increased Inspections and PHMSA Enforcement for Pipeline Safety

Posted on Thu, Jul 21, 2011

In a June hearing before the Committee on Energy and Commerce, the PHMSA communicated their support for stronger enforcement authority, expanding integrity management requirements beyond existing high consequence areas, improving pipeline infrastructure data collection, and advancing safety in other important ways. They highlighted their accomplishment resulting from thorough review of its inspection and enforcement related regulations, procedures, and guidance, as well as its data collection and transparency efforts.

The following six PHMSA rules have been implemented as a result of their recent efforts:
1) Operators of gas distribution pipelines are required to develop and implement integrity management programs similar to those required for gas transmission and hazardous liquid pipelines;
2) Operators of gas distribution pipelines must address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines where controllers use supervisory control and data acquisition systems;
3) Regulation of the remaining population of unregulated rural hazardous liquid low stress pipelines, which was required by the Pipeline Inspection, Protection, Enforcement, and Safety (PIPES) Act of 2006;
4) Improve data collection from operators of pipelines and liquefied natural gas facilities;
5) Clarify data and annual reporting requirements;
6) Expedite the deadlines in the control room management rule for pipelines.

The PHMSA would like to increase civil financial penalties for serious violations leading to deaths, injuries, or significant environmental damage.  For these types of violations, the agency supports increasing the caps from $100,000 per violation per day/$1,000,000 per series of related violations, to $250,000 per violation per day/$2,500,000 per series of related violations. These current financial penalties for violations of the pipeline safety requirements have remained stagnant for almost 10 years. The PHMSA believes this increased levels of penalties are necessary to achieve deterrence goals, particularly in serious cases in which violations led to injuries, fatalities, or significant environmental damage.

Additionally, the PHMSA supports the elimination all remaining statutory exemptions for both gas and hazardous liquid gathering lines. Removal of these exemptions would allow the remaining unregulated pipeline mileage to be regulated. Production facilities and flow lines would remain non-jurisdictional.

For tips and best practices on designing a crisis management program, download Best Practices for Crisis Management.

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Tags: PHMSA, Pipeline, Regulatory Compliance, Chemical Industry

In Case of Emergency..... First Responder Initial Response Actions

Posted on Mon, Jul 18, 2011

Most organizations that have the potential for a hazardous release require HAZWOPER training for their employees. However, in the event of a release, many believe that initial responders are responsible for stopping the spill. According to the HAZWOPER standard, the purpose of the initial responder (operations level) is to protect life, property, or the environment from the effects of the release, not stop the release.

Initial responders are trained to respond in a defensive fashion without actually trying to terminate the release. Their function is to contain the release from a safe distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent exposures. Upon a discovery of a spill, the initial responder should take the following actions:
  • Report the emergency
  • Warn others and activate alarm
  • Take immediate personal protective measures
  • If safe to do so, initiate response actions consistent with level of training and response plans.

Properly trained emergency response personnel should then continue the response effort. Events that may require outside emergency assistance may include, but are not limited to:

  • An uncontrolled release of a hazardous material
  • Fire
  • Explosion
  • Serious injury or illness
  • Potential risk of exposure to blood borne pathogens.

According to OSHA, first responders at the operational level are those individuals who initially respond to hazardous substances releases. Employees who may be exposed to hazardous substances, including hazardous waste, are required to be HAZWOPER certified. 

For tips and best practices on designing a crisis management program, download Tips for Effective Exercises.

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Tags: Emergency Preparedness, Crisis Management, Training and Exercises, Facility Management, Emergency Management Program, Chemical Industry