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Budget Conscious Response Plan Testing and the Tabletop Exercise

Posted on Thu, Aug 11, 2016

Why Test Response Plans?

Budget restrictions and staffing limitations are continually on the minds of many corporate leaders. Yet response planning and preparedness continue to be an essential aspect of company operations. In order to be effective, response plans must be interactive, and continually updated and improved upon in order to provide actionable information, processes, and procedures that help manage incidents, infrastructure, and critical business processes. As a result, response plans must be tested.

Periodical response plan testing requires a dedicated budget, even in times of economic strain. Testing responses can identify detrimental training gaps and non-compliance issues that may compromise the effectiveness of a response plan and cripple operational continuity. This critical preparedness level feedback is essential in stabilizing readiness, response competency, and corporate sustainability.

There are various types of emergency response drills and exercises that test response plans. Depending on operations, potential risks, and budgets, these drills and exercises can range from small group discussions to complex, multi-faceted exercises. To fully execute a response plan, synergistic exercises should be developed to assess the following:

  • Communication
  • Training
  • Resource management
  • Command Post effectiveness

Managers should set exercise goals and budget before settling on a particular method. When budgets are restrained, a well-prepared tabletop exercise may be an acceptable method for a response plan assessment.

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The Tabletop Exercise

A tabletop exercise is the simplest form of exercise to conduct in terms of planning, preparation, and coordination. In order to garner a heightened awareness of preparedness, response competency and plan effectiveness, the following tabletop components should be considered when planning exercises:

Scenario Information and Position-Specific Tools: Detailed scenario information, ICS forms, and position specific events should be prepared to guide all participants through the execution of their roles and responsibilities.

Exercise Time Frame: The facilitator should determine how much time is allotted for the exercise in order to test response processes and procedures. Exercise responses are typically accelerated through each phase of the exercise. However, it should be clearly understood that the same events or actions under emergency conditions might require additional time to complete. Participants must be prepared for actual scenarios that can quickly transition from a basic emergency to a full scale crisis within a short time frame, requiring rapid decision making and expeditious responses.

Exercise Notification Communications: In all cases, exercise participants must ensure that all involved parties clearly understand that no actual emergency exists, and no resources or equipment should be mobilized or dispatched. The statement "This is a Drill" should be included on with all verbal communications and written correspondences, including report forms, fax communications, and press releases. It may be helpful to add the date to any written documentation for organizational and regulatory compliance purposes.

Communications with external agencies, contractors, medical responders, or other parties not participating directly in an exercise should also be informed as to not inadvertently initiate responses.

Response Equipment Deployment: Emergency equipment and vehicles should be simulated for tabletop exercises. Staging area locations should be identified.

Injects: An inject describes an additional event or circumstance that requires a response or action from the participant. Injects may be provided to specific participants or as a component of the entire exercise.

Weather Conditions: Adverse weather conditions may be simulated during an exercise. In an actual emergency, weather conditions may hinder response processes and procedures.

Exercise Termination and Debriefing: Following termination of the exercise, a debriefing of all exercise participants should be conducted. All participants should have the opportunity to provide feedback on the exercise and complete an exercise evaluation form. Feedback should be evaluated for potential response plan mitigation opportunities.

Follow-up on Action Items: Exercises may provide insight into the deficiencies in an emergency response plan. In order to take response efforts to the next level, action items resulting from the exercises should be prioritized and completed in a timely manner.

TRP Corp Emergency Response Planning Exercises

Tags: Testing, Tabletop Exercise

Why Test Preparedness and Response Plans with Tabletop Exercises?

Posted on Thu, Oct 22, 2015

Exercises must be conducted in order to ensure response plans are effective, and personnel are prepared to respond to an incident. Minimum exercise requirements should be established within an emergency preparedness program to ensure response plans are properly tested for use during a disaster, emergency, or crisis.

A tabletop exercise is often the simplest form of exercise to prepare for, coordinate, and conduct. A tabletop exercise utilizes a simulated scenario that enable participants to react to events as they unfold. This exercise format should facilitate analysis of an emergency situation, elicit constructive response from participants, and identify gaps or inaccuracies in response plans and personnel knowledge. The goal of a tabletop exercise program should be to improve the overall readiness and capabilities of emergency response program that encourages:

  • Realistic scenarios
  • Proper training validation
  • Effective emergency response plans
  • Identification of action items
  • Response team relationships
  • Operational response capabilities
  • Personnel preparedness, regardless of the threat or hazard

The tabletop exercise also provides an environment to:

1. Apply National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS): The Incident Management Team (IMT) should demonstrate a proficiency in utilizing the forms, processes, and terminology of the ICS.

2. Demonstrate understanding of the Emergency Response Team (ERT) and Incident Management Team (IMT) organizations: The ERT and the IMT should have a functional understanding of their specific roles and responsibilities. Gaps in training should be identified, and follow-up action taken to ensure that these gaps are addressed.

3. Unify common organizations, general responsibilities, and company expectations: The ERT and IMT should have a clear understanding of the capabilities of each responding organization. Communication processes, response methods, roles and responsibilities, and available equipment should be identified and confirmed for the applicable scenario.

4. Demonstrate the ability to document communication, actions, management decisions, and track resources: Participants should utilize ICS forms to record processes and implemented procedures per regulatory requirement and company standards. Documentation can be used for post-exercise assessments and team reviews, and to create action items to improve follow-up and emergency response plans.

 

Below is a list of common tabletop exercise planning considerations:

Condensed Exercise Time-Frame: In order to exercise the emergency scenario, the exercise must progress in a condensed time-frame (not real-time). Events should move rapidly through some phases of the exercised response. However, it should be clearly understood that under real conditions the same events or actions would require much more time to complete.

Scenario Information and Position-Specific Tools: Detailed scenario information, ICS forms, and position specific events should be prepared to guide all participants through the execution of their roles and responsibilities. These tools should be included in a participation package and distributed to all participants prior to the exercise.

Weather Conditions: Depending on the scenario, either real or simulated weather conditions may be utilized during the exercise.

“This is a Drill” Exercise Communications: All radio, telephone, electronic, and written communications must begin and end with the statement "This is a Drill". Include this statement in all verbal communications, and in a prominent location on all written correspondence.

Response Equipment Deployment: Emergency equipment and vehicles should be simulated for tabletop exercises. Staging area locations should be identified.

Injects: An Inject describes an event or circumstance that requires an additional response or action from the participant.

Exercise Termination and Debriefing: Following termination of the exercise, a debriefing of all exercise participants should be conducted. All participants should have the opportunity to provide feedback on the exercise and complete an exercise evaluation form.

Follow-up on Action Items: Exercises provide insight into emergency response plan deficiencies. In order to take response efforts to the next level, action items resulting from the exercises should be completed in a timely manner.

 

TRP Corp Emergency Response Planning Exercises

Tags: Tabletop Exercise

Incident Response Drills and Tabletop Exercises

Posted on Thu, Jul 17, 2014

There are various types of types of emergency response drills and exercises that target specific goals. They can range from small group discussions to complex, multi-faceted exercises. But each drill or exercise presents the opportunity to improve site-specific response plans, rendering the potential for a more effective response.

Response plan testing can begin with simple exercises intended to validate general response plan comprehension or incorporate an all-inclusive, full-scale, realistic, multi-scenario exercise. Managers should determine the goals of the exercise before settling on a particular method. To fully execute a response plan, synergistic drills or exercises should be developed to assess the following critical response skills:

  • Communication
  • Training
  • Resource management
  • Teamwork

An exercise should prepared employees and responders to minimize the impacts of an incident. Below are three of the most basic exercises.

1. Orientations: The purpose of an orientation is to familiarize participants with roles, responsibilities, plans, procedures, and equipment. Orientations can resolve questions of coordination and assignment of responsibilities. The inclusion of first responders and facility staff promotes the development of an effective plan.

2. Drills: The goal of a drill is to practice aspects of the response plan and prepare teams and participants for more extensive exercises in the future. A drill can test a specific operation or function of the response plan.  Facilities should conduct evacuations, shelter in place, and lockdown drills to demonstrate emergency response actions. Drills can be altered to incorporate various scenario situations. The procedures, individual responsibilities, and public safety coordination may be addressed depending on the presented scenario or outcome of the drill.

3. Tabletop Exercises: A tabletop exercise simulates an emergency situation in an informal, stress-free environment.  The participants, usually comprised of decision-making level staff and responders, gather to discuss simulated procedures and general problems/solutions in the context of an emergency scenario.  The focus is on training and familiarization with roles, procedures, and responsibilities relative to the emergency synopsis and potential injects.

Below is a list of common tabletop exercise planning considerations:

Condensed Exercise Time Frame: In order to exercise the emergency scenario, the exercise must progress in a condensed timeframe (not real-time). Events should move rapidly through the phases of the exercised response. However, it should be clearly understood that under real conditions the same events or actions might require additional time to complete. Conversely, real world scenarios can quickly change and transition from a basic emergency to a full scale crisis within a short time frame that require rapid decision making and expeditious responses.

Scenario Information and Position-Specific Tools: Detailed scenario information, ICS forms, and position specific events should be prepared to guide all participants through the execution of their roles and responsibilities. These tools should be included in a participation package and distributed to all participants prior to the exercise. A web-based drill and exercise management tool can streamline the distribution of these tools.

Weather Conditions: Depending on the scenario and if the weather is a critical factor, either real or simulated weather conditions may be utilized during the exercise.

“This is a Drill” Exercise Communications: All radio, telephone, fax and written communications must begin and end with the statement "This is a Drill".  Include this statement in all verbal communications, and in a prominent location on all written correspondence, including report forms, fax communications, and press releases. It may be helpful to add the date to any written documentation for organizational and regulatory compliance purposes.

Communications with external agencies, contractors, medical responders, or other parties not participating directly in an exercise must begin and end with the statement, "This is a Drill". This may involve state or federal regulatory notifications or contact with suppliers or vendors to source simulated logistical needs. In all cases, exercise participants must ensure that the all involved parties clearly understand that no actual emergency exists, and no resources or equipment should be mobilized or dispatched.

Response Equipment Deployment: Emergency equipment and vehicles should be simulated for tabletop exercises. Staging area locations should be identified.

Injects: Injects may be provided to some participants or as a component of the exercise. An inject describes an additional event or circumstance that requires a response or action from the participant.

Exercise Termination and Debriefing: Following termination of the exercise, a debriefing of all exercise participants should be conducted.  All participants should have the opportunity to provide feedback on the exercise and complete an exercise evaluation form. Feedback should be evaluated for potential response plan mitigation opportunities.

Follow-up on Action Items: Exercises may provide insight into the deficiencies in an emergency response plan. In order to take response efforts to the next level, action items resulting from the exercises should be completed in a timely manner.

For a free download entitled, "Tips on How to Conduct an Effective Exercise", click the image below:

TRP Corp Emergency Response Planning Exercises

Tags: Tabletop Exercise, Training and Exercises, Facility Management, Emergency Management Program, Communication Plan, Workplace Safety, HSE Program

Documenting Oil and Gas Emergency Response Drills and Exercises

Posted on Thu, Jun 26, 2014

Amidst the business of sustaining profitable operations, oil and gas companies must ensure that work conditions are safe. Oil and gas operations have innate risks, hazards, and, in the event of a release or spill, potential detrimental impacts. As a result, regulatory agencies require response drills and exercises that adequately reflect the current operations and emergency response capabilities.

The National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) is designed to facilitate the periodic testing of oil spill response plans for certain vessels and facilities, and provide companies an economically feasible mechanism for exercise compliance. This unified federal effort provides a consistent set of guidelines that satisfies the exercise requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration (PHMSA), and the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSSE). Completion and documentation of the PREP exercises satisfies all OPA 90 mandated federal oil pollution response exercise requirements.

Drill frequency and specific requirements vary depending on operations, vulnerabilities, facility location, and site hazards. However, documentation of oil and gas emergency preparedness drills and exercises is mandated by various regulatory agencies. Thorough documentation also:

  • Identifies deficiencies and mitigation opportunities
  • Provides a historical record of the event
  • Engages management in preparedness efforts
  • Serves as a legal instrument, if necessary
  • Ensures training accountability
  • Accounts for preparedness efforts and plan maintenance cost

In order to satisfy the PREP requirement, oil and gas companies must be able to document all operational and support aspects of a response, and provide detailed records of decisions and actions taken. An exercise tracking system that is integrated into an overall response planning system can minimize the documentation efforts associated with drills and exercises. A tracking system should:

  • Improve regulatory compliance with thorough documentation·
  • Provide a tool for scheduling exercises, and documenting PREP objectives, exercise objectives, lessons learned, scenarios, and action items.
  • Provide a tool for developing exercise final reports and a method of assigning and tracking outstanding action items to improve follow-up.
  • Provide a reporting mechanism to track PREP objectives completed during any 3 year cycle, outstanding action items, and a summary report by facility that indicates progress in meeting PREP exercise requirements.
  • Provide a “snapshot” of exercises completed for the year for every facility via a summary report.

To ensure employees and identified essential response personnel are prepared to respond to an incident in an efficient and effective manner, oil and gas companies should establish minimum exercise guideline requirements. Management should ensure that:

  • All aspects of response plans are exercised at least once per year with the appropriate response, incident management, and support teams taking part.
  • Notification exercises for Qualified Individuals are conducted on a quarterly basis. This exercise should involve unannounced checks of the communication processes, and systems.
  • National and local training and exercise requirements should be used to assess the overall integrated preparedness of a response with the authorities.

If not physically present during a drill and/or exercise, the final documentation from the events can be submitted to local responders or fire marshals for review. If a web-based planning system is utilized, drill and exercise documentation can be securely shared and accessed by approved stakeholders. In the event of an actual incident, the lessons learned from these drills and exercises can minimize impacts and prevent further consequences.

For a free download entitled, "Tips on How to Conduct an Effective Exercise", click the image below:

TRP Corp Emergency Response Planning Exercises

Tags: Testing, Tabletop Exercise, Training and Exercises, Emergency Management Program, HSE Program

Expert Insight on Emergency Response Tabletop Exercises and Scenarios

Posted on Fri, Jun 20, 2014

Emergency response training simulations are an integral part of a sound emergency management program. Exercises offer training opportunities for responders to strengthen their capacity for responding to various site-specific emergencies. By facilitating different types of drills and exercises, facilities can identify the appropriate methods for preventing, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from crises.

Real world exercise scenarios can often highlight potential deficiencies in response plans, individual comprehension of response roles and responsibilities, and partnership coordination efforts. Deficiencies often reveal mitigation opportunities and valuable response knowledge that can be applied to response plans and an actual emergency response situations.

There are various types of emergency drills and exercises for response training and planning validation. Companies can test response plans with simple orientations and drills, and work their way toward full-scale exercises, inclusive of multiple components and coordinated efforts.

A tabletop exercise is one of the simplest type of comprehensive exercises to conduct in terms of planning, preparation, and coordination. It should facilitate analyses of an emergency situation and the most effective processes to respond and recover. The informal, stress-free environment should be designed to prompt constructive discussions about existing emergency response plans as participants identify, investigate and resolve issues. The success of the exercise is mainly determined by the identification of problem areas, and applying applicable corrections.

These exercises should replicate realistic and site-specific emergency scenarios that allow participants to increase their awareness of roles and responsibilities required to respond, stabilize, terminate, and recover from emergencies. In preparation for these exercises, companies should develop exercise planning documents, including participant's and controller’s packages that contain exercise objectives, scenarios, ground rules, and simulation scripts. These guidelines, at a minimum, should be provided to all participants prior to the exercise to allow for a thorough examination of exercise expectations. A training and exercise management system can streamline and simplify the documentation and administrative duties associated with exercises planning.

The goal of a tabletop exercise program should be to improve the overall readiness and capabilities of emergency response program that encourages:

  • Realistic scenarios
  • Proper training validation
  • Effective emergency plans
  • Action item identification
  • Operational response capabilities
  • Personnel preparedness to respond to incidents, regardless of the threat or hazard

The Department of Homeland Security addresses four types of exercise scenarios used in risk management and emergency planning:

1. Basic Scenario:  Provides basic information about one specific variable or risk, such as internal or external hazard, attack type, or potential target. Scenarios can be used to establish response parameters and instructions based on a singular applicable variable (Ex: tank 101 fire or leak at a loading dock).

2. Narrative Scenario: Story-like, highly detailed scenarios with many fixed factors. Narrative drills are typically used for planning purposes rather than risk analysis. Narratives identify characteristics of a scenario, detailed background information, and each components of the scenario.

3. Visual Modeling:  Highly structured scenarios that display multiple potential variables of an emergency situation. Depending on the level of detail, visual models can become highly comprehensive and complex. The Department of Homeland Security identifies three methods of visual planning: attack paths, fault trees and event trees.

Attack paths: A systematic method that examines the sequence of events that occurred prior to the incident.

Fault trees: A detailed, deductive tool is used to assess the ill-fated sequence of events that led to the incident. A fault tree highlights potential hazards and ineffective processes.

Event trees: Assess the components it takes to respond and recover from an incident. Event trees highlight the necessary planning initiatives required to counteract the incident.

4. Future Scenario: Speculative narratives that consider how trends, such as social media usage or global warming, will impact future risks. This scenario can to identify “future-state” planning strategies against a range of alternative risk possibilities.

For a free download entitled, "Tips on How to Conduct an Effective Exercise", click the image below:

TRP Corp Emergency Response Planning Exercises

 

Tags: Tabletop Exercise, OSHA, Emergency Management, Response Plans, Training and Exercises, Emergency Management Program

The Preparedness Secrets to Reducing Response Time

Posted on Thu, Apr 03, 2014

In emergency management, response time is critical. The faster an effective response can be initiated, the less chance of an incident escalating and adversely impacting the facility, employees, the environment, and a company’s reputation. Rapid incident response requires accurate communication, training, and exercises.

An accurate plan must be in place for optimal response times. Verification of contact information for company personnel, emergency responders, and agencies should be done on a periodic basis. Any delay in communication will increase response times, delay response actions, and exacerbate the potential impacts.

In order to react quickly, companies need to prepare response plans with flexible, yet pre-identified response strategies. It is critical that the emergency management framework, response measures, and communication strategies be tested and exercised before an incident occurs.

Response plan audits ensure detailed accuracy, plan applicability, and regulatory compliance. Throughout the audit process, a variety of aspects can be tested to ensure optimal response times. Certain elements to test include, but are not limited to:

  • Viability of communications systems (monthly)
  • Alerts, notifications, and activation procedures (quarterly) for all response personnel
  • Response equipment (monthly)
  • Accessibility of response plan
  • Primary and backup infrastructure systems and services
  • Plans for recovering vital records, critical information systems, services, and data
Most successful and timely responses result from a prepared strategy, with a cooperative understanding of response roles and responsibilities. Having a “real-time” incident management system in place may alleviate some of the shortfalls in response measures. However, employees and responders must be trained in response procedures in order to carry out expected actions. In order to limit response times, the following training and exercise concepts should be implemented:

TRAINING

  • Train employees on response roles and responsibilities
  • Conduct incident response orientations and briefings for the entire workforce
  • Train company leadership on response team organization and applicable functions
  • Train personnel on response plans and procedures
  • Allow opportunities for response personnel to demonstrate familiarity with the plans and procedures
  • Report documented training to applicable regulatory agencies

EXERCISES

  • Exercise physical security attributes at the site
  • Test internal and external interdependencies,  with respect to performance of critical response functions
  • Conduct exercises that incorporate deliberate response actions and measure overall response time
  • Conduct exercises using scenarios that involve evacuation, shelter in place, or virtual office accessibility
  • Demonstrate coordinated communications capability
  • Allow opportunity for continuity personnel to demonstrate their familiarity with the recovery and restoration procedures to transition from a continuity environment to normal activities

Coordinating planning, training, drills, and resource availability with local agencies and responders is an important aspect of an effective environmental, health and safety program. Broadening the scope of response expertise can minimize response time. Local agencies may provide additional response knowledge based on particular research, experiences, or training. Not only can response time be reduced, but also the overall duration of the incident.

Emergency managers should continually meet with potential response partners such as government agencies, community organizations, neighboring companies, and utilities companies.  Communicating with external alliances throughout the entire planning cycle can drastically reduce response time. Sources of local collaborative response efforts and plan management information may include:

  • Community Emergency Management office
  • Mayor or Community Administrator’s office
  • Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC)
  • Fire Department
  • Police Department
  • Emergency Medical Services organizations
  • American Red Cross
  • National Weather Service
  • Public Works Department
  • Telephone companies
  • Electric companies
  • Neighboring businesses

Companies that are required to maintain emergency response plans for regulatory purposes should consider the use of web-based response plans that integrate with real-time incident management systems in order to maximize their emergency response efforts.

Be prepared for your next incident! Click the image below to download your free guide.

Preparedness and Emergency Management - TRP Corp

Tags: Tabletop Exercise, Emergency Response, Emergency Preparedness, Response Plans, Emergency Response Planning

Success, Failure, and the Emergency Response Exercise

Posted on Mon, Nov 18, 2013

“Our greatest glory is NOT in never failing, but in rising up every time we fail." 

-Ralph Waldo Emerson

Corporate culture and associated public perceptions do not embrace the ideology of growth through failure. A recent LinkedIn discussion highlighted the issue of exercises being designed entirely for success. The exercises in questions were ones that were specifically designed to match response capabilities, not necessarily challenge participants and established preparedness efforts.

The discussion brings to light the multifaceted purpose of an exercise. While the action of conducting an exercise may validate regulatory requirements, exercises should be designed to test response plans and training effectiveness. The unique paradox of success through failures is the key to overall response plan improvement, especially within exercises.

Real world exercise scenarios can often highlight potential deficiencies (meaning failures) in response plans and procedures, comprehension of individual roles and responsibilities, and partnership coordination. However, it is through identified deficiencies that mitigation opportunities are revealed and valuable response knowledge and experiences can be attained.

The discussion emphasized that designing exercises strictly to create stressful, non-attainable objectives, is counter-productive.  It is imperative to balance current capabilities with realistic scenarios in an effort to strengthen the overall resolve of the emergency preparedness program. An exercise should present challenging situations in an effort to improve capabilities. A demanding exercise can clearly identify deficiencies. However, creating a bottom line, no-win exercise situation can negatively affect the overall preparedness program by diminishing and detracting from the goal of improved response. An exercise should support a positive response team synergy by validating successes, yet create a path to increased response capabilities and improve targeted training efforts.

Conducting a challenging exercise outside the scope of response capabilities can also create a flawed negative reputation and unwarranted fallouts from the failed endeavor. Companies may suppress some negative impressions, feeling that a “failed” attempt at exercises may lead to internal and/or external perception that a company is poorly prepared for responding to an emergency. Pre-emptive crisis management efforts can alleviate possible unfavorable judgments. Companies sometimes promote their exercises results through public relations campaigns that highlight their dedication to overall preparedness advancements and a commitment to safety.

Crisis-Management-TRP.jpg

Whether a full scale or tabletop exercise, participants should understand and demonstrate the following:

1. A proficiency in utilizing the forms, processes, and common terminology to respond to the scenario in association with:

  • National Incident Management System (NIMS)
  • Incident Command System (ICS)

2. A comprehension of the specific roles and responsibilities within the following teams:

  • Emergency Response Team
  • Incident or Emergency Management Team organizations

Gaps in response plans or training should be identified and follow-up action taken to ensure that these gaps are addressed.

3. An understanding of external responding organization(s), and general internal responsibilities and expectations of the company: The following should be identified and confirmed for the applicable scenario:

  • Communication processes
  • Response methods
  • Response times
  • Roles and responsibilities
  • Available equipment

4. The ability to document and communicate actions, management decision, and track resources, using standardized ICS forms and the Emergency response Plan: Participants should record processes and implement procedures per regulatory requirement(s) and company standards. Documentation can be used for:

  • Response assessments
  • Legal inquiries
  • Team reviews
  • Training efforts
  • Identification of action items and lessons learned
  • Improving emergency response plans

Exercises provide a setting for operational response procedures to be tested. In preparation for these exercises, companies should develop exercise-planning documents, including participant and controller’s packages that contain exercise objectives, scenarios, ground rules, and simulation scripts. These guidelines, at a minimum, should be provided to all participants prior to the exercise to allow for an understanding of expectations.

Threats, hazard vulnerabilities, staffing and organizational structure, facilities, and equipment are continually changing. A response exercise should be a tool utilized to identify effective efforts and inefficiencies in response to these changes. Through honest evaluations of response efforts to simulated “real-world” scenarios, emergency preparedness programs can continually improve, strengthen, and succeed... until the next change!

For a free download on "Conducting Effective Exercises", click the image below:TRP Corp Emergency Response Planning Exercises

Tags: Testing, Tabletop Exercise, Resiliency, Emergency Preparedness, Training and Exercises, Emergency Management Program, Emergency Response Planning